2021 SRSU Undergraduate & Graduate Symposium – Virtual Presentation Schedule
Tuesday, April 13th, 2021

Click on a Session Time (left row of the schedule below) to jump down the page and view the Presentation Abstracts, Presenter Videos, & Session Recordings for that Session Time.

Noon-12:50

SRSU Symposium Spotlight Event:
Virtual Student Poster Presentation
Hosted & Moderated by Dr. Alicia Trotman
The poster presentations exhibit students’ proposals in the Experimental Psychology 2021 class. They obtained feedback in the development of their ideas and proposals at an ‘Inspire & Inquire’ session held in February that SRSU students and staff attended. Students hope to complete their research studies by May 2021.

Click on the Session Time link at left to see all poster presenter student information, poster abstracts, and view each poster PDFs.
WATCH SPOTLIGHT EVENT RECORDING

Session
Time
Virtual Room A Virtual Room B
1:00-1:20 Presenter: Eduardo Rodriguez
Moderator: Dr. Alicia Trotman (Psychology)
Title: “Investigating Mediating Factors That Support Grit for Highly Successful Introverted Student Athletes
(start: 1pm)
 

1:30-1:50

  Presentation Team: Johanna Covington, Justice Santa Cruz, Viviana Sanchez, Anthony Quintana
Moderator: Sidney Balman (Journalism and Social Media)
Title:Skyline: News of the Western Front
(start: 1:30pm)
2:00-2:20 Presenter: Sam Burch
Moderator: Dr. Kevin Urbanczyk (Geomorphology)
Title: “Quantifying Morphologic Change Along the Rio Grande Within Boquillas Canyon, Big Bend National Park”
(start: 2pm)
 
2:30-2:50 Presenter: Jake Roberson
Moderator: Dr. Kevin Urbanczyk (Geology)  
Title:A Mineral Characterization of Rio Grande Suspended Sediment and Relationship to Source
(start: 2:30pm)
 
3:00-3:20
Team Presenters: Chris Boudreaux, Matthew Michel
Moderator: Dr. Kevin Urbanczyk (GIS/Hydrology)  
Title:Topographic mapping to assess spring restoration at Kokernot Lodge
(start: 3pm)
 
3:30-3:50 Presenter: William Bullock
Moderator: TBD (Healthcare administration)
Title: Blood Stewardship in a ground based EMS System: An analysis of blood transfusion rates in a major metro EMS system serving as a guide for program feasibility throughout the nation
(start: 3:30pm)
 
4:00-4:20 Extended Time: 4:00pm-4:50pm
Team Presenters:
Yasmine Barron, Kandle Ynostrosa, Michelle Ramos
Moderator: Dr. Theron Francis (Languages & Literature)
Title: The Making of The Sage Literary Journal
(start: 4pm)
 
4:30-4:50 4pm Session Continues Presenter: Lauren Martinez
Moderator: Dr. Jennifer Miller (Instructional and Educational Technology)
Title:Professional Development for Instructional Technology Implementation Needed for Middle School Teachers in Remote Areas Near the Texas Mexico Border
(start: 4:30pm)
5:00-5:20

Extended Time: 5:00pm-5:50pm
Team Presenters: Kiahna Garcia, Robin Alvarez, Kandle Ynostrosa, April Hernandez
Moderator: Dr. Laura Payne (Creative Writing)
Title: The Art of the Memoir:  Story-telling on the Borders of Our Truths
(start: 5pm)

Presenter: Angela McGuyer
Moderator: Dr. Jennifer Miller (Instructional and Educational Technology)
Title: Virtual Reality Used in Learning Environments’”
(start: 5pm)
5:30-5:50 5pm Session Continues  Presenter: Morgan Summer
Moderator: Dr. Jennifer Miller (Instructional and Educational Technology)
Title:Social Presence within a Virtual Learning Environment
(start: 5:30pm)

Noon – 12:50pm Symposium Spotlight Event – Virtual Poster Presentation

Noon-12:50pm / SRSU Symposium Spotlight Event – Virtual Poster Presentation

Event Description: The poster presentations exhibit students’ proposals in the Experimental Psychology 2021 class. They obtained feedback in the development of their ideas and proposals at an ‘Inspire & Inquire’ session held in February that SRSU students and staff attended. Students hope to complete their research studies by May 2021. 
Event ModeratorDr. Alicia Trotman

WATCH SPOTLIGHT EVENT RECORDING

Poster Presenters:
(1)
Presenter: Timmi Hutchings
Faculty Mentor: Dr. Alicia Trotman (Psychology)
Title: Mental Toughness and its Correlates: How Substantial are the Connections when Interviewing Female Rodeo Athletes?
Virtual Presentation: Live poster presentation with follow-up – Undergraduate
Abstract:This study aims to go into depth on how mental toughness in equestrian athletes is strongly recommended. Mental toughness is being able to push past failures by still being positive and competitive. There is little research on this topic, especially for female athletes and the connection with academic performance (Beron & Piquero, 2016; Meyers et al., 1996; Meyers et al., 1999; Micoogullari et al., 2017). This information can help equestrian female athletes in the future realize that striving for excellence in academics and athletics are co-constitutive and achievable.
Poster PDF: SRSU Poster – Timmi Hutchings

(2) Presenter: Vincent Martin
Faculty Mentor: Dr. Alicia Trotman (Psychology)
Title: The Effects of Animal-Assisted Therapy in Reducing Anxiety
Virtual Presentation: Live poster presentation with follow-up – Undergraduate
Abstract:AAT has been found to be effective in reducing short-term anxiety in people in in-patient settings (Barker & Dawson, 1998; Barker et al., 2003; Kline et al, 2019). Most of these studies, however, relied on hospital patients who could enroll, attend, and complete their studies, limiting the effective scope of their studies. This qualitative study aims to investigate how Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) affects anxiety via individual semi-structured interviews of out-patient individuals currently enrolled in AAT. It is important to help further promote the efficacy of AAT to have an extra tool for dealing with anxiety and anxiety disorders.
Poster PDF: SRSU Poster – Vincent Martin

(3) Presenter: Adrian Salmon
Faculty Mentor: Dr. Alicia Trotman (Psychology)
Title: Examining deindividuation among college students: Soliciting political and religious views
Virtual Presentation: Live poster presentation with follow-up – Undergraduate
Abstract:Deindividuation is a term in psychology that refers to an individual’s loss of self-awareness among groups during situations in which they believe they cannot be personally identified. The purpose of this study is to see if individuals bond through deindividuation processes. My investigation will examine the participant discourse through suggestive clips relating to either political or religious material. If propaganda works through the subconscious, then similar methods may be applied through deindividuation to draw out ideas and conversations amongst individuals. The primary hypothesis of this study is that the experimental group will talk longer and will converse more genuinely amongst one another. I hope my findings add to the deindividuation literature by examining the concept in the current climate with a rural population, which will extend studies conducted by Asch (1951) and Benjamin et al. (2016). The secondary aim of this study is to facilitate this experiment well enough, so that individuals in the experimental group walk out knowing that they said everything they wanted to and that they ultimately feel heard.
Poster PDF: SRSU Poster – Adrian Salmon

(4) Presenter: Sara Ray
Faculty Mentor: Dr. Alicia Trotman (Psychology)
Title: Simpatía or no? Inquiry of emotional and personality distinctions among monolingual and bilingual young adults
Virtual Presentation: Live poster presentation with follow-up – Undergraduate
Abstract:The purpose of this study is to explore the motivational factors of aspiring bilinguals (L2’s) and compare motivational themes found in previous studies to see what differences, similarities, or new themes may arise among college students in the Southern United States. Lastly, cultural values as measure by the Simpatía Scale (Acevedo et al., 2020) will be identified and its subsequent relationship to L2 motivation. Ultimately, the goal is to continue to explore and define pathways that increase motivation to become bilingual since many positive benefits have been identified in the literature for monoglot cultures (Perryman, 2016).
Poster PDF: SRSU Poster – Sara Ray

(5) Presenter: Frank Mwamba
Faculty Mentor: Dr. Alicia Trotman (Psychology)
Title: Examining the patterns of interracial romantic relationships and the transition to adulthood
Virtual Presentation: Live poster presentation with follow-up – Undergraduate
Abstract:Interracial romantic relationships in the United States became legal in 1967 after the Supreme Court ruling that declared anti-miscegenation laws unconstitutional. Since then, mixed-race marriages have increased and proliferated rapidly (Sharon & Joyner, 2011). Many psychology researchers investigated how the racial mix of partners in relationships is associated with the timing to sex cohabitation and marriage, and how these have been carried out over the years. There is evidence that involvement in interracial sexual relationships declines with increasing age among young adults (Joyner & Kao, 2005). This research study tracks and tries to explain the changing patterns of involvement in interracial relationships during the transition to adulthood using a life course perspective that highlights the role of historical and age-graded changes in contexts and relationships.
Poster PDF: SRSU Poster – Frank Mwamba

(6) Presenter: Crystal Baeza
Faculty Mentor: Dr. Alicia Trotman (Psychology)
Title: A sense of despair? Examining the relation between procrastination and primal beliefs among college students
Virtual Presentation: Live poster presentation with follow-up – Undergraduate
Abstract:Many students in college struggle with procrastination. Nicholson & Scharff (2007) discovered that college students who procrastinate can dwell in negative emotions which drive lower self-regulating tendencies. Negative emotions and low self-regulation can spiral into a sense of helplessness. This helplessness is similar to the hopelessness that Sue (1978) identified in his Worldview Model where the locus of control and responsibility lay outside the individual. Clifton, et al. (2018) created a new instrument called the PI-99 which investigates primal beliefs that refer to categories of belief about the overall character of the world that inform individual differences in cognition, affect, and behavior. According to Clifton, et al., those who do not possess an internal locus of control appear to have a narrower view of their potential in terms of how they think, feel and behave. Thus, this study will address my two research questions: (1) Do persons who have higher tendencies to procrastinate view their worlds in pessimistic ways? (2) Do those who view their worlds with greater pessimism view that control of their lives lies outside of them?
Poster PDF: SRSU Poster – Crystal Baeza

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1:00 – 1:20pm Session Presentations – Student Information and Abstracts

1:00-1:20pm / Virtual Room A – Moderator: Dr. Alicia Trotman

Presenter: Eduardo Rodriguez
Faculty Mentor: Dr. Alicia Trotman (Psychology)
Title: “Investigating Mediating Factors That Support Grit for Highly Successful Introverted Student Athletes
Virtual Presentation: Pre-recorded video presentation with live follow-up – Graduate
Abstract:Grit has been researched as a psychological skill/attitude that connects more with sports achievement than personality traits. Tedesqui & Young (2017) claimed that lower sport achievement is due to grit seeming to mirror minor qualities of conscientiousness. Berry et al. (2000) contend that extraversion and grit are connected when agreeableness is observed. Introversion, however, has been shown to have a connection with high academic outcomes but not with grit (Ivcevic & Brackett, 2014). Rinn et al. (2019) asserted that introversion has been linked to academic success and participation in honors programs at the college level through examination of students who were most positively correlated with the programs. Furthermore, Crist (2018) found that introverts find their vocation through internal and external influences, where the former is connected to self-regulating behaviors. Hence, my research questions have become (1) If successful introverted student athletes possess conscientiousness, is that the only mediating factor for their high level of grit? and (2) Are successful introverted student athletes self-regulating their behaviors based on their internal influences?

PRESENTER VIDEO SESSION RECORDING

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1:30 – 1:50pm Session Presentations – Student Information and Abstracts

1:30-1:50pm / Virtual Room B – Moderator: Sid Balman

Presentation Team: Johanna Covington, Justice Santa Cruz, Viviana Sanchez, Anthony Quintana
Faculty Mentor: Sidney Balman (Journalism and Social Media)
Title: Skyline: News of the Western Front
Poster/Presentation: Pre-recorded video presentation with live follow-up – Undergraduate
Abstract:The Sul Ross Skyline is a growing student-run newspaper. The editors, reporters, photographers, and digital designers practice their craft under the guidance of experienced and ardent advisors. They all have one goal: to find and share the news in a fair and honest way with the entire West Texas area. From freshmen to post-graduate students, the Skyline team is encouraged to cultivate their skills while producing professional news content. Each story is a lesson in Journalism, and the mission is to honor our readers and the truth. In many ways, the Skyline has started from scratch since COVID. The staff has simultaneously learned how to navigate the news world and college during a global pandemic. Striving for excellence, the Skyline post-2020 is hoping to become a major news source for other news outlets in the area. By continuing to share the current events of Sul Ross and the broader community in an accurate and prompt manner, the Skyline will become a dependable and sharable source of information. The Skyline has already begun to build relationships with other local news outlets through efforts to share our stories. By utilizing social media, both official and staff, the Skyline’s reach has spread further than previously expected. The Skyline will keep its readers informed of Sul Ross politics, student life and health, and how the grand scope of the world’s news effects our campus and local area. The old adage, “You heard it here first,” is something our team wants to regularly achieve.

PRESENTER VIDEO SESSION RECORDING

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2:00 – 2:20pm Session Presentations – Student Information and Abstracts

2:00-2:20pm / Virtual Room A – Moderator: Dr. Kevin Urbanczyk

Presenter: Sam Burch
Faculty Mentor: Dr. Kevin Urbanczyk (Geomorphology)
Title: “Quantifying Morphologic Change Along the Rio Grande Within Boquillas Canyon, Big Bend National Park”
Poster/Presentation: Pre-recorded video presentation with live follow-up – Graduate
Abstract: “The research on which this presentation is based is driven by two principle aims: First, to measure the extent to which geomorphic change, and second, the extent to which change in vegetative coverage have occurred on the Rio Grande at selected sites within Boquillas Canyon, in Big Bend National Park, from 2004 to 2017.  More specifically, drawing upon data collected over the course of multiple monitoring trips, the current report examines changes in channel width, volumetric gains and losses, and changes in bed elevations as well as changes in percent coverage of vegetation on selected sandbars over the 2004-2017 period of study.  The primary dataset utilized for this research focuses on a collection of topographic data collected using both traditional survey techniques (Total Station and RTK GPS) and both ground-based and aerial LiDAR. While most locations analyzed for volumetric changes cover a range of dates from 2012 to 2015, some sites surveyed cover a longer timeframe (2005 to 2015), which includes a large channel reset event in 2008.  In short, the dual focus of the current study is designed to add to our understanding of the status of one of the most remote canyons along the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, one of the “World’s Top 10 Rivers at Risk” as identified by the World Wildlife Fund (Wong et al, 2007; CEC, 2014).

PRESENTER VIDEO SESSION RECORDING

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2:30 – 2:50pm Session Presentations – Student Information and Abstracts

2:30-2:50pm / Virtual Room A – Moderator: Dr. Kevin Urbanczyk

Presenter: Jake Roberson
Faculty Mentor: Dr. Kevin Urbanczyk (Geology)  
Title: A Mineral Characterization of Rio Grande Suspended Sediment and Relationship to Source
Poster/Presentation: Pre-recorded video presentation with live follow-up – Graduate
Abstract: “The Rio Grande in the Big Bend region is currently being monitored by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) in association with a multi-agency restoration effort designed to improve the overall function of the river system.  The condition of the river is degraded due to a combination of reduced flow, encroachment of invasive vegetation, and subsequent increased sediment deposition.  Restoration activities have focused on the removal of the invasive vegetation with one goal being to liberate sequestered sediment. One variable monitored is sediment load transported by the Rio Grande. This is accomplished using side-facing multi-frequency arrays of acoustic-doppler profilers at two locations along the Rio Grande in Big Bend National Park, Texas. In the Rio Grande, USGS researchers have noticed an anomalous relationship between the calculated concentration of silt and clay sized sediment and an attenuation coefficient (αsed) derived from the collected acoustic data for the Rio Grande samples. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the dominant mineralogy of suspended silt- and clay-sized sediment seen in the Rio Grande by using X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis in the SRSU Analytical Laboratory. The different mineral types, average grain sizes, and shapes associated with those minerals can be used to refine calculations to determine suspended sediment concentration in the Rio Grande. Using preferably oriented and randomly oriented sample mounts to identify mineral phase types and volumetrically quantify each mineral phase present, it has been found that quartz, calcite, a variety of common feldspars, a variety common of zeolites, and four distinguishable clays dominate the mineralogy of Rio Grande suspended silt and clay sediment. The dominant sources from which these minerals likely originate vary from mechanical weathering of local Paleogene volcanic effusive and intrusive deposits or Cretaceous carbonate sequences, to various diagenetic processes associated with leaching in an open system post-Paleogene magmatism.

PRESENTER VIDEO SESSION RECORDING

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3:00 – 3:20pm Session Presentations – Student Information and Abstracts

3:00-3:20pm / Virtual Room A – Moderator: Dr. Kevin Urbanczyk

Team Presenters: Chris Boudreaux, Matthew Michel
Faculty Mentor: Dr. Kevin Urbanczyk (GIS/Hydrology)  
Title: Topographic mapping to assess spring restoration at Kokernot Lodge
Poster/Presentation: Pre-recorded video presentation with live follow-up – Undergraduate
Abstract: “Multiple entities including Sul Ross State University (SRSU), the city of Alpine, and the Rio Grande Joint venture are planning a restoration project of the historic spring at Kokernot lodge on the SRSU campus.  The restoration will include diversion of treated wastewater in order to put water back into the spring system.  Currently, there are several small ponds that were developed many years ago to allow spring water to slowly travel from the head of the spring to the outlet into Alpine creek.  Due to declines in groundwater levels, these are currently dry most of the time.  The plan for the initial phase of the restoration is to utilize these topographic depressions by applying the treated water at the upper end of the system.  In order to develop a baseline dataset for hydrologic analysis of this project, we have created a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the area using terrestrial LiDAR technology.  The DEM was created using a Riegl VZ-400i scanner.  The scans were merged into a point cloud and then processed into a DEM using Cloud Compare software.  The DEM has a minimum resolution of 5 cm and will be used to estimate impounded water volume and flow rate through the spring system.

PRESENTER VIDEO SESSION RECORDING

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3:30 – 3:50pm Session Presentations – Student Information and Abstracts

3:30-3:50pm / Virtual Room A – Moderator: Kathleen Rivers

Presenter: William Bullock
Faculty Mentor: Dr. Jessica Velasco (Healthcare administration)
Title: Blood Stewardship in a ground based EMS System: An analysis of blood transfusion rates in a major metro EMS system serving as a guide for program feasibility throughout the nation
Poster/Presentation: Pre-recorded video presentation with live follow-up – Graduate
Abstract: “A call goes out to 911 as a citizen pulls up to a severely damaged vehicle lying on its rooftop on the side of the highway. Inside the vehicle, a young driver appears unconscious and she has severe bleeding from multiple areas on her body. In years past, the patient in this scenario, suffering from hemorrhagic shock, or “bleeding to death” would have a poor prognosis, as the capabilities of emergency medical providers were extremely limited.  In 2018, a revolutionary innovation in emergency medical services became a reality as ambulances throughout South Texas began carrying whole blood as a treatment modality for patients in extremely critical conditions. Despite the presence of numerous logistical challenges associated with prehospital whole blood transfusion, members of multiple medically-based agencies worked in collaboration to make this vision a reality.  This work examines the process that enabled the San Antonio Fire Department EMS division to provide prehospital whole blood transfusions.  Additionally, an analysis of the whole blood transfusion ratio in the San Antonio EMS system serves as a potential blueprint for replication in other departments throughout the country.  Multiple usage variables will be examined in an effort to inform and empower EMS agencies as they seek to minimize waste when considering the usage of whole blood in their respective systems.  The work concludes with suggestions for alternate uses of whole blood.

PRESENTER VIDEO SESSION RECORDING

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4:00 – 4:50pm Session Presentations – Student Information and Abstracts

4:00-4:50pm / Virtual Room A – Moderator: Dr. Theron Francis

Team Presenters: Yasmine Barron, Kandle Ynostrosa
Faculty Mentor: Dr. Theron Francis (Languages & Literature)
Title: The Making of The Sage Literary Journal
Poster/Presentation: Live team presentation with follow-up – Undergraduate, Graduate
Abstract:This will be a panel discussion of the evolution of Sul Ross’ literary journal from the 1950s to the current edition. The panel will discuss the creative process involved in individual submissions and in the selection and construction the finished journal. The relationship between visual and verbal artistry will also be considered. It will conclude with a look at the future of the Sage and the forms it could aspire to reach“.

SESSION RECORDING  

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4:30 – 4:50pm Session Presentations – Student Information and Abstracts

4:30-4:50pm / Virtual Room A – Moderator: Dr. Jennifer Miller

Presenter: Lauren Martinez
Faculty Mentor: Dr. Jennifer Miller (Instructional and Educational Technology)
Title: Professional Development for Instructional Technology Implementation Needed for Middle School Teachers in Remote Areas Near the Texas Mexico Border
Poster/Presentation: Pre-recorded video presentation with live follow-up – Graduate
Abstract:Considering the rising amount of technology use in today’s world and over recent decades, the call for schools to produce digitally advanced students in technology-integrated classrooms is high. This paper explores the need for professional development for technology integration that focuses on student learning and outcomes as the objective. With a wide number of professional development for technology integration focused on teaching the educator how to use the technology rather than how to integrate it, the need for redesigning professional development to gear it in the right direction for student digital literacy is at an all-time high. To achieve an effective design of professional development for technology integration, an evaluation of student learning outcomes is more crucial now than ever before. The literature reviewed offers insight into what is being looked at and what is being looked for when developing and designing professional development for technology integration within recent decades. The purpose of the study is to gain insight into what teachers in remote areas of the Texas/Mexico border need in terms of professional development for instructional technology integration.

PRESENTER VIDEO SESSION RECORDING

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5:00 – 5:20pm Session Presentations – Student Information and Abstracts

5:00-5:50pm / Virtual Room A – Moderator: Dr. Laura Payne

Team Presenters: Kiahna Garcia, Robin Alvarez, Kandle Ynostrosa, April Hernandez
Faculty Mentor: Dr. Laura Payne (Creative Writing)
Title: The Art of the Memoir:  Story-telling on the Borders of Our Truths
Poster/Presentation: Live team presentation with follow-up – Graduate
Abstract:In the Fall 2020 graduate creative writing workshop, SRSU English graduate students embarked on a course seeking to tell our stories in the midst of Pandemic.  From our homes, we sought to mine our own stories, research our pasts, their historic precedents and literary predecessors, in order to communicate universal truths within our very personal and individual stories.  This panel will both discuss the workshop experience in prose nonfiction as well as present original readings of creative nonfiction.

SESSION RECORDING  


5:00-5:20pm / Virtual Room B – Moderator: Dr. Jennifer Miller

Presenter: Angela McGuyer
Faculty Mentor: Dr. Jennifer Miller (Instructional and Educational Technology)
Title: Virtual Reality Used in Learning Environments’”
Presentation: Pre-recorded video presentation with live follow-up – Graduate
Abstract:The purpose of this review is to explore the characteristics of virtual reality used in education and the effect of the learner’s attitude, perceived learning, interaction, self-efficacy, and learning achievement. Thoughts to the design model, in some course curriculum, highlight certain learning characteristics that show measurable positive outcomes. An attempt will be made to answer which instructional design models and templates used in virtual reality using a constructivist theory for application create significant academic gains. What characteristics of virtual reality technologies used in instruction show measurable effects in learning? The discussion seeks to present the attributes and limitations specific to learning effects, usability, and perceived usefulness including a review of characteristics in instructional design models and templates for the use of virtual reality.  Findings from a review of literature aim to inform instructional designers, instructors, and administrators on the characteristics of virtual reality used in education.

PRESENTER VIDEO SESSION RECORDING

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5:30 – 5:50pm Session Presentations – Student Information and Abstracts

5:30-5:50pm / Virtual Room A – Moderator: Dr. Jennifer Miller

Presenter: Morgan Summer 
Faculty Mentor: Dr. Jennifer Miller (Instructional and Educational Technology)
Title: Social Presence within a Virtual Learning Environment
Poster/Presentation: Pre-recorded video presentation with live follow-up – Graduate
Abstract:Online learning has become a popular alternative to in-person classroom instruction due to its convenience and flexibility for busy lifestyles. Social presence, or presenting oneself as a real person, is a vital factor of interactions in an online learning environment. Social presence is one of three elements in the Community of Inquiry framework, a social constructivist model of learning processes for online classrooms (Garrison et al., 2000). Instructor social presence is a term used to describe how instructors create a persona of being real while building a sense of community in a virtual classroom setting. Educators continue to research techniques and strategies to best create a social presence as it has been linked to increased student satisfaction, engagement, and achievement. This review will first discuss the concept of social distance, how it is created and maintained in the online classroom by educators, its importance within the online environment, and its effect on students’ engagement and learning. The author also discusses current research that asks whether social presence is necessary for an online learning environment. The lack of research about social presence in virtual learning within the K-12 setting, along with recommendations for further research in the K-12 setting, will also be proposed at the end of the review.

PRESENTER VIDEO SESSION RECORDING

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